«Second-Hand» Artifacts in Burial-Memorial and Sacral Complexes of Ancient Bosporus

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Abstract. The article is devoted to the secondary use of asynchronous early objects in later – mainly Roman – burials, funeral feasts and sanctuaries, which was revealed during the excavations of necropolises on the Ilurat plateau near town-fortress Iluraton (I–III c. A.D.) and on the flatland near seaside town Kytaia (V c. B.C. – VI c. A.D.). Adduced facts evidenced that the presence of such objects in the enclosed archeological complexes is not coincidental. To be found in this context first they had to be discovered somewhere, somehow distinguished, picked up and brought to a place of their latest use. Hellenistic objects found in such complexes on the Iluraton plateau indirectly confirm the existence of proto-Iluraton, which location was known to those, who collected them then – but not to us. In Kytaia and adjacent necropolises the presence of early strata and objects of V–IV c. B.C. required more rigorous approach to assert that those objects were placed in much later burial and commemorative complexes not accidently, but deliberately and with a purpose. However, facts gathered confirm the revealed pattern. Specific attitudes towards “second-hand” objects along with the tendency to use them in rites were caused by the mytho-ritual type of consciousness, immanent to the Bosporus people of that time.

Keywords: ancient Bosporus, вurial-мemorial сomplexes, sanctuaries, «second-hand» artifacts, mytho-ritual type of consciousness.

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