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The Russian-Kazan confrontation and international relations in Eastern Europe in the 1530s

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Abstract. The article examines the history of the “Kazan question” in international relations in Eastern Europe in the 1530s. It is shown how this foreign policy problem turned from a local one into a regional one, in the solution of which the Nogai Horde, the Astrakhan Khanate, the Crimean Khanate and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania were involved. The paper analyzes the preserved fragments of the Kazan-Lithuanian correspondence. The change in the dating of one of the messages proposed by K.Ju. Erusalimskij is disputed. The final conclusion is made that the attempt to attract Vilna to Russian-Kazan relations, undertaken by Safa-Giray, was not very successful. The Nogai Horde did not make a final choice in the conflict between Moscow and Kazan. Part of the nomadic nobility participated in attacks on Russian lands, and some, on the contrary, insisted on pacifying the opposing sides. Special attention is paid to the diplomatic maneuvering of the Kazan Khan Safa-Giray. Using negotiations, deliberately delaying them, he was able to achieve the preservation of the defense potential of Kazan, without giving the city artillery to the Russians. The most effective was the intervention of the Crimean Khan Sahib Giray, who forced the parties to a truce. However, the peace talks were disrupted by the Kazan Khan Safa-Giray, and the conflict moved into an irreversible phase.

Keywords: Russian-Kazan relations, diplomatic correspondence of Ivan the Terrible, Kazan-Lithuanian relations, diplomas, embassy books, chronicles, Kazan Khanate.

For citation: Moiseev M.V. The Russian-Kazan Confrontation and International Relations in Eastern Europe in the 1530s, in Novoe Proshloe / The New Past. 2022. No 1. Pp. 28–42. DOI 10.18522/2500-3224-2022-1-28-42.

The article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC 4.0).    

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