In the formation of the national ideology people are turning to the ideals of the past. They are looking for their national heroes in the Middle Ages. For example, in Estonia the article shows the features of this phenomenon in this Baltic country. Estonia as a state did not exist until 1918. From the 13th to 20th centuries it has always been under the alien rule. A period of the Middle Ages, was the time of independence the tribes of ancient Estonians. Hence the increased attention to this period in modern Estonia. The reign of the German knights now interpreted as, first, proof of the closeness of Estonia to the European history and culture, and secondly – the time reflect Russian aggression in the Livonian War. Appeal to the Middle Ages there is the basis of the meaning and requirements of the national ideology of the 20th century. This historic policy is successful, since the Middle Ages less conflictual than the history of the 20th century. Today the important function of history as a cultural practice. In general, the experience of “mobilization of the Middle Ages” to meet the challenges of nation-building in Estonia is considered successful. But we must bear in mind its political orientation and constructivist character.
Keywords: Estonia, Middle Ages, historical politics, military history, the Teutonic Order, the Livonian Order, the Livonian War.